Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Red drupelet disorder, Australia updated powerpoint




Max Edgley, from the University of Tasmania, sent me this updated power point last week.

He looked at physical damage, N levels (low/medium/high), cooling temperature treatments. His preliminary data suggests:


  • Physical damage increases red drupelet numbers
  • High N application during harvest had higher numbers of red drupelets
  • Staged cooling (precooling and cooling) had less red drupelets than just one cooling temperature.

For more details on specifics of this work,  see his presentation at:

http://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/856422/Red-Drupelet-disorder-update-June-2016.pdf



Wednesday, July 6, 2016

Red drupelet disorder

Red drupelets in blackberry fruit harvested in the afternoon. Upper image is showing more than 15% red drupelets. Lower image is a mild case. Upper image PPV, lower image GF.
Now that we are reaching peak harvest and peak summer temperatures, red drupelet disorder is starting to appear in harvested fruit. After the fruit is harvested, individual black drupetlets will revert back to a red color. Red druplet disorder is also called reversion, reddening or red cell. Penny Perkins-Veazie has worked on this problem for several years. Here are some of her thoughts:

- Harvest before 10 am, get to cooler within an hour of harvest. 
- Remove heat quickly or delay field heat development.
- Forced air cool may need to be set 5 F higher than usual to avoid excess coldness at top of pallet.
-Semi truck loads tend to have more red drupe at front end (near rig) and at top due to air movement and nearness to cooling units.
-Least susceptible variety continues to be Navaho.  Those showing problems are Natchez, Tupi.  Ouachita can be problematic if rainfall has been high and harvest is going into afternoon.
-I'm not sure about PrimeArk 45 or Osage.  The new 'crispy' type does not seem to get red drupe, indicating a firmness/cell wall component in color reversion.
-A 15% red drupe (color reversion) in the load is considered the limit to avoid rejection.  
-Trellising or using E-W row orientation helps to keep fruit in shade longer, decreases exposure to light/heating.  (GF: our shift/RCA trellises seem to have less red and white druplets in general)
-We are not yet sure of production practice issues on red drupe although some reports with tunnel grown blackberries indicate keeping nitrogen rates lower and avoiding heat buildup help with the problem.
-Environmental possibilities for exacerbating the problem seem to be water stress (high rainfall within a few days of harvest, or high rainfall in spring followed by very hot temperatures), nitrogen imbalance, and possibly calcium/potassium availability.

Max Edgley, from the University of Tasmania, has an excellent slide show on this disorder. Max attended the Rubus and Ribes Symposium last year and has shared some of his findings here:

http://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/792363/Red-drupelet-disorder-Presentation.pdf

Tuesday, July 5, 2016

A Great New Way To Get Your Choice of USDA-AMS (Agricultural Marketing Service) Information

Jeffrey Davis from USDA-AMS (Agricultural Marketing Service) has encouraged me to share this information with both Extension personnel and growers. The USDA-AMS has started a new email subscription service to help you have access to more of the all the useful AMS information.  The service allows you to choose how many programs you will receive information from. For example, I subscribe to the Specialty Crops Program. And today they sent me a notice about a webinar the Supply Reports Branch, is hosting next week. They will have a group of panelists that will help explain the Terminal Market, Shipping Point, Retail, Local, International, Movement, and Organic reports. Here is the information to sign up:

"USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is pleased to announce that we have implemented a new email subscription service to make it easier for you to learn about updates on the topics which interest you. We will continue to send you emails on everything from upcoming Specialty Crops Program (SCP) webinars, informational Market News updates, and our SCP newsletters. 

Our new platform will allow you to receive important e-mail notices containing the latest information about AMS program areas of interest to you.  You’ll have quick access to material regarding new opportunities from our Marketing Orders & Agreements Division (MOAD), Promotion & Economics Division (PED), Specialty Crops Inspection Division (SCID), Specialty Crop Market News (MN) and our Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA) Division.  Best of all: you will be in complete control over what information you receive! 

Do I need to do anything?

No, we will continue to send you timely, relevant information on all of the important AMS programs & services that you have received in the past. Starting today though, the emails will be coming from our new email subscription service GovDelivery. If you would like to customize the topics that you are subscribed to follow these three simple steps:

Step 1: Customize your GovDelivery Subscriber Preferences

Access your account preferences here: https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDAAMS/subscriber/new?preferences=true
Enter your e-mail address and click the “Submit” button.  Click the “Preferences” tab, choose your e-mail delivery preferences, and enter an optional password (highly recommended).
Click the “Submit” button.
Step 2: Choose Your Topics of Interest

Note: We have already selected topics that you have already shown interest in, so take a moment to review those selections.

Click the “Subscriptions” tab, and then click the “Add Subscriptions” link.
Browse the “Subscription Topics” categories and topics of interest.  Click on the “+” sign to expand categories and topics.
If you want to receive e-mail updates on a particular category or topic, click the checkbox next to that category or topic.  If you choose a category, you’ll receive updates for all the topics under that category.
Save your topics by clicking the “Submit” button at the bottom of the page.
Step 3: Get the Updates You Want

When AMS has new information to share related to any of the categories or topics you chose, we will e-mail that information to you.

Who Can I Contact If I Have Questions?

E-mail questions related to your subscription to Jeff Davis

Jeffrey Davis
Business Development Specialist
Specialty Crops Program
USDA/Agricultural Marketing Service
1400 Independence Ave SW
Stop 0236, Room 2085-S
Washington, DC   20250
Direct  (202) 260-9519
Cell      (202) 306-2673
Fax      (202) 720-0016
jeffrey.davis4@ams.usda.gov

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Blackberry Botrytis Resistance Profile


Botrytis (gray mold) is a common sight in strawberry fields, especially if it has been a rainy season. Although less common in blackberry fields, it can occur.

Guido Schnabel, Clemson Univ. is offering to test blackberry/raspberry samples to determine if you have resistance to  botrytis (gray mold) fungicides at your farm. He has done this for strawberry growers for a number of years and some blackberry growers have also used this service. It is a great way to determine if what you are spraying is effective in controlling gray mold.

See the link below for downloadable instructions. They suggest you use the swabs instead of fruit, because they are easier to ship. Note also that each farm will get 2 free samples analyzed, if you would like more than that, there will be a $110 charge.

Please share these with folks that may be interested.

Sample document link:


For more information on the service see:
http://www.clemson.edu/extension/horticulture/fruit_vegetable/peach/diseases/br_strawberry.html

Thursday, June 2, 2016

Summer checklist for blackberries and raspberries

Summer  2016
Caneberry Chores

This list was developed by Dr. Gina Fernandez, Small Fruit Specialist at NC State University.  Chores and timing may be somewhat different in your area or for your cropping system. 

Some parts of the region have had excessive rain, so stay on top of your disease monitoring and control (see link to IPM guide below). There are early reports of SWD, stay on top of that pest as well. See post by Hannah Burrack https://entomology.ces.ncsu.edu/2016/06/preventing-and-managing-spotted-wing-drosophila-infestation/



Plant growth and development
Fruit development for floricanes fruiting types
Rapid primocane growth
Flower bud development for primocane fruiting types later in summer
Floricanes senesce

Pruning and trellising

Floricane-fruiting raspberries:
May need to adjust primocane numbers if canes are too thick (i.e. remove less vigorous primocanes at their base)
Train primocanes to the trellis
Pinch black raspberry primocanes at 2 to 3 ft. to promote lateral growth

Primocane-fruiting raspberries:
Train primocanes within a trellis to hold canes erect

Erect floricane -fruiting blackberries
Tip the new primocanes when they are about 6” to 12” below the top wire of the trellis to encourage lateral branching
Continue tipping at monthly intervals to maintain desired branching and height of canopy (laterals should reach top wire), if pruners are used, make sure that a fungicide is applied as cane blight will enter that large wound are created by the pruners
Prune out spent floricanes after they have produced fruit, do not thin out primocanes until mid-to late winter
Train primocanes to trellis to minimize interference with harvest.  Shift trellises or V trellises make this relatively easy

Trailing floricane-fruiting blackberries
Train new primocanes to middle of trellis, on the ground in a weed-free area, or temporarily to trellis outside of fruiting area (depends on trellis type)
Cut back side shoots to 18” (after dormancy in cold climates)
Remove spent floricanes after harvest

Primocane-fruiting blackberries
Tip canes twice, soft tip once when they reach 1.5 ft and then soft tip the laterals at 1.5 ft. 

Weed management
Mow along side of row to maintain the width of the bed to 3 to 4 ft. 
Weed growth can be very vigorous at the same time as the crop peaks. 
Weed control is best done earlier in the season before harvest commences. 
Mow middles regularly to allow pickers to move through rows easily.

Insect and disease scouting
Scout and treat for these pests: 
Insects
Raspberry crown and cane borers (canes girdled and wilt)
Psyllid 
Two-spotted spider mite
June beetle
Japanese beetles
Stink bugs
Fire ants
Diseases
Botrytis
Rusts
Orange felt (orange cane blotch) (blackberry)
Sooty blotch (blackberry)
Orange rust
Powdery mildew
Double blossom (blackberry)
Cane blight (blackberry)
Powdery mildew

Water management
Raspberry and blackberry plants need about 1-2 inches of water/week; this amount is especially critical during harvest. 
Give plants a deep irrigation after harvest.

Nutrient management
Take leaf samples after harvest and send to a clinic for nutrient analysis
Blackberry growers typically use drip irrigation through the spring and early summer to supply about 50 lb/N acre. Growers should ease off N during harvest, but give plants additional nitrogen (about 10-30 lbs/acre) after harvest. Amounts needed will vary with plant health, crop load and soil conditions. Check with your local Extension agent for recommendations. 

Harvest and marketing
The busiest time of the year for a blackberry or raspberry grower is the harvest season. Each plant needs to be harvested every 2-3 days. For larger plantings, that means fruit is picked from some part of the field every day of the week.
Pick blackberries when shiny black for shipping. Those that are dull black are fully ripe and suitable for PYO only.
Pick directly into clamshells with absorbent pads, or for PYO use clean cardboard flats, take-home baskets, or sanitized re-usable containers.
Keep harvested fruit in shade and move into coolers as soon as possible to lengthen the shelf life of the fruit.
Use forced-air precoolers for best removal of field heat.
Store at 32 to 34°F and 95% relative humidity.
Freeze excess fruit for jam, juice, or wine.
Keep excellent records of what cultivars are picked, what fields are picked and when they are picked. Good record keeping will help you predict harvest  potential in the future.
Keep your customers informed with social media. 

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Raspberry and Blackberry Grades and Standards

While searching for other statistics on caneberries, I came across this information that some of you may be interested in browsing as you enter the harvest season. The USDA has grades and standards for the quality rating of raspberries and blackberries.  The raspberry grades/standards were established in 1931 and blackberry in 1928.

Below are grades and standards for both crops, the actual grades/standards allowed by some shipping companies can be more restrictive, eg. no white drupelets. Local markets rarely follow these standards (at least I have not seen them). If you would like more information, the original  links can be found at:

https://www.ams.usda.gov/grades-standards/fresh-dewberries-and-blackberries-grades-and-standards
https://www.ams.usda.gov/grades-standards/raspberries-grades-and-standards

Fresh Dewberries and Blackberries Grades and Standards


Grades of Fresh Dewberries and Blackberries

  1. U.S. No. 1 consists of dewberries or blackberries of one variety which are firm, well colored, well developed and not overripe, which are free from caps (calyxes), mold and decay, and from damage caused by dirt or other foreign matter, shriveling, moisture, disease, insects, mechanical or other means.
a.    Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by volume, of the berries in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, including therein not more than 5 percent for defects causing serious damage, and including in this latter amount not more than 1 percent for berries which are affected by mold or decay.
  1. U.S. No. 2 consists of dewberries or blackberries of one variety which fail to meet the requirements of the U.S. No. 1 grade but which do not contain more than 10 percent, by volume, of berries in any lot which are seriously damaged by any cause, including therein not more than 2 percent for berries which are affected by mold or decay.
  2. Unclassified consists of dewberries or blackberries which have not been classified in accordance with either of the foregoing grades. The term "unclassified" is not a grade within the meaning of these standards but is provided as a designation to show that no grade has been applied to the lot.

Detailed standards, Inspection Instructions & Other Resources:


Raspberries Grades and Standards


Grades of Raspberries

  1. U.S. No. 1 consists of raspberries of one variety which are well colored, well developed and not soft, overripe, or broken; which are free from cores, sunscald, mold, and decay, and from damage caused by dirt or other foreign matter, shriveling, moisture, disease, insects, mechanical or other means.
a.    Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than 10 percent, by volume, of the berries in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of this grade, including therein not more than 5 percent for defects causing serious damage, and including in this latter amount not more than 1 percent for berries which are affected by mold or decay.
  1. U.S. No. 2 consists of raspberries of one variety which fail to meet the requirements of the U.S. No. 1 grade but which do not contain more than 10 percent, by volume, of berries in any lot which are seriously damaged by any cause, including therein not more than 2 percent for berries which are affected by mold or decay.
  2. Unclassified consists of raspberries which have not been classified in accordance with either of the foregoing grades. The term "unclassified'' is not a grade within the meaning of these standards but is provided as a designation to show that no grade has been applied to the lot.

Detailed standards, Inspection Instructions & Other Resources:

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Blackberry pricing

Please help the North American Raspberry and Blackberry Association determine pricing of fruit for this upcoming harvest season. See the message below from their Executive Secretary Debby Wechsler. Click on the link at the end of her message for the short questionnaire. She will publish these prices as she always does in the summer issue of "The Bramble".  Please respond by May 31st!

Dear Growers: 

What are your berry prices this year? The North American Raspberry & Blackberry Association is surveying growers about their raspberry & blackberry pricing for 2016. We are especially interested in prices for pick-your-own and retail (eg on-farm and at farmers markets). We will also report local wholesale prices (such as to stores and restaurants) if you provide them. If you don't know your 2016 prices yet, you can just provide your 2015 prices or best estimates.

As we did last year, we will report the results in the June issue of our newsletter. We will also share the report with all non-members who participate in the survey.

The more growers who participate, the more useful the survey is, so feel free to share this message and link with other raspberry & blackberry growers, especially those who direct-market at least some of their berries to consumers. 
Click here for the questionnaire. Please respond by May 31st!