Friday, September 8, 2017

Hurricane Irma

Source: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/graphics_at1.shtml?cone

Caneberry growers,  its hard to believe it is happening again. It's too soon to tell how much impact we will see in NC, we will know more in the next day or so. 

This link has information from several hurricanes/sotrms including Sany and Irene 



Here is the most recent post from 2016 on how to prepare and an excerpt from a Cornell article on how to deal with flooded fields:

Here are some things that can be done before the storm:

IF YOU ARE IN AN AREA WITH HIGH PREDICTED WINDS: You should consult with your tunnel manufacturer to determine how much wind your tunnels can withstand. Removing or skinning the plastic off the tunnels  is a whole lot less costly than having the entire tunnel mangled.

IF YOU HAVE A SHIFT OR ROTATING ARM TRELLIS: Lay the trellis in the horizontal or down position and make sure it can stay in that position. Some trellises do not have the capability to lock in the horizontal position. If that is the case, it may be better in the upright position.

POTENTIAL FOR ELEVATED DISEASES: Canes if properly trellised should not lodge as a result of the wind and rain. However, there may be some physical damage to canes. Make sure you walk your fields before and after the storm. There may be a need to do some extra pruning and use of a fungicide if you can get out into the field after the storm. Phil Brannen, UGA plant pathologist recommends a spray for Cane blight, before the storm. See the SRSFC for recommended chemicals. http://www.smallfruits.org/smallfruitsregguide/Guides/2016/2016BrambleSprayGuide.pdf

After the hurricane passes there may be some soils that have flooded. Here is some information from a previous post from Cornell University. Since most of the berry crops have already been harvested, we are primarily concerned with flooded fields effects on roots.

This is an excerpt form an article is provided courtesy of Cornell University. It was written for flooding situations in the northeast in the late summer. However,  a flooded field poses similar problems for plant survival and is still an issue in the fall, as plants are not yet dormant. 


DEALING WITH FLOODED BERRY FIELDS
Steve Reiners and Marvin Pritts
Dept. of Horticulture
Cornell University


PLANT SURVIVAL UNDER WATER


How long a crop can live once it is flooded and what may be the effect on yield? Berry crops can tolerate a great deal of flooding when they are dormant, but when actively growing in summer, flooding for any length of time can be detrimental. This time of year is particularly bad because plants are preparing to make flower buds for next year, and stress can compromise this process. If plant roots were under water for more than 48 hours, expect next year’s crop to be compromised as well.

Plants previously flooded may develop an off-green or yellowish color.  These plants are suffering from a complex of nutrient deficiencies, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and perhaps others, even though the soil contains adequate amounts. But the main deficient element is oxygen. Plant roots need oxygen to take up nutrients and water to utilize the photosynthate from the tops and to grow. With the heavy rains we have had, soils are saturated; that is, nearly all of the pore space is filled with water, leaving little room for air. Ideally, for good root growth 50 percent of the pore space should be filled with air. As soils drain, air is drawn into the soil, but when it rains, the water forces the air out of the pores. As is obvious to all, what is needed now is several rain-free days so the soils can drain and draw in air to stimulate root growth and help disperse toxic compounds that accumulate when plants lack oxygen.  Once the plant roots get adequate oxygen they will begin to grow and take up the nutrients present in the soil. Anything that can be done to remove surface water will be helpful.

Many plant diseases will be much worse following flooding rains (e.g. Phytophthora and Botrytis), so closely monitor crops and manage these diseases. Phytophthora spores are spread under flooded conditions, so chemical treatment may be warranted in susceptible crops (red raspberries and blackberries).

(Thanks to Steve Rieners and Marvin Pritts at Cornell University for sharing this with us.) 




Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Leaf Tissue Sampling Time for Blackberry Crop



Illustration of leaf numbers for sampling. Use leaves 3-5. Photo  courtesy NCDA &CS.
Now is a good time to take leaf tissue samples for floricane- and primocane-fruiting blackberries.

For  floricane fruiting types should be sampled 2 weeks after harvest is over.

See illustration above for leaf number. You want to try to pick the most recently mature leaf (MRML)  The MRML is usually 3rd to 5th leaf from top of the primocane.

For primocane fruiting types, leaves should be sampled when most of the fruit is in the green stage. Again try to pick a MRML. (It is a bit harder to illustrate, with all the laterals on a primocane fruiter. I will work to get a good image this season).

For both fruiting types, collect 1–2 leaves per bush from 20–40 bushes; 20-40 leaves total. Put them in a paper bag.

Since we don't know about each individual cultivars nutritional needs, it would be a good idea to keep cultivars and field locations separate. Keeping an accurate report for each cultivate each year will allow you to fine tune the fertility for that cultivar and location.

In North Carolina send your samples to:

NCDA&CS Agronomic Services—Plant Lab Mailing address:
1040 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, NC 27699
Physical address: (If you are dropping off samples):
4300 Reedy Creek Rd, Raleigh NC 27607 

If you are not in NC, check with your local Cooperative Extension Agent to find the best local source for tissue sampling.

For more information on how to collect samples and how to read the report go to:
http://www.ncagr.gov/agronomi/documents/BlackberryRaspberryTissueSamplinghandout.pdf

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Caneberry summer chores



See link below for the Summer issue of the SRSFC newsletter

http://www.smallfruits.org/staging/assets/documents/sfn/Vol17-Issue3.pdf

  • Some highlights include a new webinar on blackberry production, hosted by the UArk.
  • A new plant pathologist at UGA, Dr. Jonathan Oliver
  • A new southern growers Grape Blog.

A reminder....
As  we approach the end of harvest season for floricane blackberry, the work is not over and now is the time to pay attention to next years crop:
1. remove spent floricanes to open up the canopy to minimize disease spread
2. give plants a deep watering, they are building roots and buds for next season
3. apply 10-30 lb N, the sooner the better, you want some growth now, but not later in the fall.
3. apply pesticides for late season pests (some of the common ones are cane blight, crown borer and  late rusts

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Blackberry Night Harvest Test Run in NC

On-farm blackberry trial with Lincoln County Cooperative Extension.  Check out the new logo! 

USUALLY, this time of year it is extremely hot (80/90's during the day, 70/80's at night) in North Carolina. It is also peak blackberry harvest. Both the blackberry fruit and people who harvest the fruit can become heat stressed with the high temperatures. Fruit can become soft, discolored (red and white drupes) and have a reduced shelf life and workers can suffer from heat exhaustion. So we asked Jeff Crotts, a blackberry grower in Vale, NC if we could work with him along with Lincoln Co. Cooperative Extension to see if night harvested fruit had better post harvest quality. We also thought that the night temperatures would be more conducive to worker health.




Earlier this week set up a large portable light in the blackberry field. Workers were also given head lamps.

Taking fruit temperatures every 3 hrs

We harvested blackberries every 3 hours for 24 hours. We took fruit temperatures from fruit harvested on both east facing and west facing canopy. We then took the flats to the cooler. We started at Noon on Monday and finished up at 9 am on Tuesday.


Temperatures were monitored throughout the experiment and we (actually Tom Dyson and Andrew Suggs Lincoln Co. Extension) also looked at leaf and fruit wetness through the night and several other nights. The station was provided courtesy of NC State Climate Office.

Temperatures were usually pleasant, so workers and fruit were not as stressed as they might have been under a normal 90F day. However, there was about a 20 degree temperature difference from day to night. So we should still have some good data on fruit post harvest evaluations. There were also differences on fruit harvetsted from east and west facing sides of the trellis.




All the fruit was then taken to the Plants for Human Health Institute where Penny Perkins-Veazsie will do post harvest evaluations on the fruit for the next couple of weeks.



There were differences in fruit temperatures throughout the 24 hours. The fruit harvested from the east facing side of the canopy got hot earlier in the day than the western facing fruit. We are still looking at the rest of data and will be sharing more as we get it analyzed.

Thanks to Rocco Schiavone, Guillermo Chacon-Jimenez, Tom Dyson, Andrew Suggs for all your help collecting data. Thanks to Jeff Crotts and crew members at Knob Creek Orchards for access to your field and all your help.


Tuesday, April 25, 2017

It's time to scout for orange rust

Guest blog post by: Karen Blaedow

Spring has arrived here in the mountains of Western North Carolina and with the increasing temperatures blackberry primocanes have started to emerge across Henderson county. This is a great time to start scouting for the important blackberry disease, orange rust. Glancing across an orchard of green lush new growth, spindly primocanes with misshapen yellowish leaves easily captures one’s attention. Upon closer investigation, the wavy leaves will have orange spores forming along the lower leaf margins, which is characteristic of orange rust. So far, this year, Navaho has been the most widely affected variety, with a few Natchez plants also infected.

Orange rust is caused by two fungal organisms: Gymnoconia nitens and Arthuriomyces peckianus. Once a plant shows symptoms the rust is systemic meaning it will remain in the root system throughout the life of the plant and it’s floricanes will stop producing flowers. This is why it is recommended a plant showing symptoms be removed and destroyed. Confirm that the rust is orange rust and not the less destructive cane and leaf rust, caused by the fungus Kuehneola uredines. Microscopic inspection of the spores is the most effective way to distinguish between these two diseases. Have a county extension agent assist with diagnosis. More information on orange rust management can be found at www.smallfruits.org.


Karen Blaedow is new to Henderson Co, but is not new to NC Cooperative Extension. She was an Extension Agent in Wayne County a few years ago. Karen has an M.S.  in Plant Science from Clemson University with an emphasis in Plant Pathology.  She studied under Guido Schnabel (so she knows a few things about diseases!). She has a B.A. in Biology from College of Charleston,  and is originally from North Augusta, South Carolina. Karen has great skills and has spearheaded a nice study in blackberries that she will share more about in a future blog. Her contact information is below.


NC Extension Horticulture Agent 
Commercial Vegetables & Small Fruit
Henderson County Center100 Jackson Park Rd.Hendersonville, NC 28792
Office phone:  828-697-4891
Cell phone:  828-222-3695
karen_blaedow@ncsu.edu

Sunday, March 26, 2017

March Madness in North Carolina...berry fields

It is March and if you live in North Carolina you know it is March Madness season. This year we have the usual NC basketball teams (who shall not be named) making the Sweet 16/Elite8/Final 4. However, there is some "maddening" things happening in the berry fields as well.  Warm temperatures in February and March stimulated bud break, and were followed by some very cold temperatures (in the teens) March 22-24.

Blackberries throughout the Carolinas were in various stages of bud break.  In research plots, the most advanced cultivars (Ouachita and some numbered selections) were about 1/4" to 1/2" elongated.  King flowers were killed in most of the more elongated buds.

A grower field tour last week in the Lincolonton NC area,  revealed that earlier flowering cultivars like Ouachita and Kiowa had king flowers and some of the secondary flowers killed. There was less damage to Navaho and Von both later flowering/fruiting cultivars. There was no green/brown cane discoloration that would indicate cane vascular damage, at least none that was evident at this point.

We will know the extent of damage as the buds continue to elongate over the next couple of weeks.  Although the temperatures were quite low, damage does not appear to be as bad as other years.

Navaho blackberry plants, buds are less than 1/4" elongated. Photo taken 3/23/17. 


Ouachita blackberry canes, showing 1/4" or more elongated buds. Photo taken 3/23/17.