Monday, June 15, 2020

What causes red drupes?


Red drupe in Prime-Ark 45. Likely due to excessive rain, These drupes never turned black.







Usually all the drupelets on a ripe blackberry fruit are uniformly black. Sometimes the fruit can have drupes that are white, tan or red. White and tan drupelets have been discussed before (https://teamrubus.blogspot.com/search?q=white+drupelet). 

The focus of this post is to discuss the occurrence of red drupes in blackberry fruit. This reddening can occur after and before fruit is harvested.  There are several known causes of red drupes and some conditions that are speculation. No matter what the cause, excessive amounts of red drupes can result in rejection of fruit in wholesale markets.

After harvest
Reversion. This is the most common cause of red drupes.
Symptoms. Drupes are black at harvest and turn red after harvest.
What is known. Research conducted by Max Edgley from the University of Tasmania looked at several factors including nitrogen rates, physical damage during harvest and transportation to the cooler, air temperatures during harvest, slow or fast cooling of fruit after harvest.  

Key Findings from the University of Tasmania study:
  • Physical damage (bruising, impact and fruit compression) during harvest and shipping is the main cause of red drupelet disorder
  • High nitrogen fertigation during harvest can significantly increase the amount of fruit with red drupelet disorder post-harvest
  • Fruit core temperatures exceeding 23C (73F) at harvest significantly increase the amount of red drupelet post-harvest
  • Harvest times, techniques, and shipping conditions can be manipulated to reduce incidence of red drupelet disorder
  • A step-cooling process reducing the rate of cooling post-harvest has been effective in reducing incidence of the disorder
  • They also found that early season fruit is more prone to this disorder. 
https://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/1110435/Blackberry-red-drupelet-fact-sheet-2017.pdf 

Addedum from Alejandra Salgado (PhD U Ark):  a weak cell wall can also cause reversion. 

See also blog post on red drupe reversion here: https://teamrubus.blogspot.com/search?q=white+drupelet


Before harvest
Redberry mite. (Redberry disease).
Symptoms. Fruit that are infected with Redberry mites have drupes never turn black. Red drupes are hard.
What is known. The mites inject a toxin into the base of the drupelets and as a result, the drupelets fail to develop normally.  Redberry mites are uncommon in the eastern United States. If you suspect they are the cause of red drupelets, samples should be submitted to your local plant disease and insect clinic for diagnosis.
Here is more information from:
Utah State University.

Excessive rain.
Symptoms. Red drupes are soft and never turn black.
What is known. There have been reports of significant red drupelet in parts of NC this year in fruit that are otherwise ripe and ready to harvest. Many, but not all of the fields have tunnels over them. The cultivar Prime-Ark 45 is seeing most of this disorder this season on the floricane crop. We cannot confirm that the rain is causing the red drupes, it is just our best guess at this time as the above (reversion and redberry mite) have been ruled out.

Viruses?
Red drupes have not been identified as symptoms associated with viruses to the best of our knowledge. 


Authors: Gina Fernandez, Hannah Burrack and Penny Perkins-Veazie and in consultation with multiple experts around the world. 

Monday, June 8, 2020

Caneberry survey on pricing and Covid-19 impacts

 Help us help you

The survey closes on Monday, June 22, 2020

The North American Raspberry and Blackberry Association (NARBA), in collaboration with NC State University and the University of Arkansas, is conducting its biennial pricing survey. Growers of caneberries (raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids) in Canada and the U.S. will be asked about prices they received across all distribution methods. This year, additional questions have been added to capture the impact of COVID-19 on caneberry prices and caneberry operations. All growers who had any caneberry acreage in 2019 or 2020 are invited to participate: TAKE THE SURVEY The results of the survey will help caneberry growers, and anyone considering growing caneberries, better plan their pricing and production decisions in future years. In addition, this data is useful to researchers and policymakers who need accurate data about caneberry pricing trends in the North American caneberry industry. Caneberry growers can participate in the online survey by following this link. Survey results will be reported in the NARBA newsletter. For more information about the survey, contact Daniel Tregeagle (tregeagle@ncsu.edu or 919-515-6091). For more information about the North American caneberry industry, contact NARBA Executive Secretary Debby Wechsler (raspberryblackberry@gmail.com or 919-542-4037).

Link to survey here: https://covid19.ces.ncsu.edu/2020/06/2020-caneberry-survey-on-pricing-covid-19-impacts/
2020
The North American Raspberry and Blackberry Association (NARBA), in collaboration with NC State University and the University of Arkansas, is conducting its biennial pricing survey. Growers of caneberries (raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids) in Canada and the U.S. will be asked about prices they received across all distribution methods. This year, additional questions have been added to capture the impact of COVID-19 on caneberry prices and caneberry operations. All growers who had any caneberry acreage in 2019 or 2020 are invited to participate: TAKE THE SURVEY The results of the survey will help caneberry growers, and anyone considering growing caneberries, better plan their pricing and production decisions in future years. In addition, this data is useful to researchers and policymakers who need accurate data about caneberry pricing trends in the North American caneberry industry. Caneberry growers can participate in the online survey by following this link. Survey results will be reported in the NARBA newsletter. For more information about the survey, contact Daniel Tregeagle (tregeagle@ncsu.edu or 919-515-6091). For more information about the North American caneberry industry, contact NARBA Executive Secretary Debby Wechsler (raspberryblackberry@gmail.com or 919-542-4037).

Read more at: https://covid19.ces.ncsu.edu/2020/06/2020-caneberry-survey-on-pricing-covid-19-impacts/
The North American Raspberry and Blackberry Association (NARBA), in collaboration with NC State University and the University of Arkansas, is conducting its biennial pricing survey. Growers of caneberries (raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids) in Canada and the U.S. will be asked about prices they received across all distribution methods. This year, additional questions have been added to capture the impact of COVID-19 on caneberry prices and caneberry operations. All growers who had any caneberry acreage in 2019 or 2020 are invited to participate: TAKE THE SURVEY The results of the survey will help caneberry growers, and anyone considering growing caneberries, better plan their pricing and production decisions in future years. In addition, this data is useful to researchers and policymakers who need accurate data about caneberry pricing trends in the North American caneberry industry. Caneberry growers can participate in the online survey by following this link. Survey results will be reported in the NARBA newsletter. For more information about the survey, contact Daniel Tregeagle (tregeagle@ncsu.edu or 919-515-6091). For more information about the North American caneberry industry, contact NARBA Executive Secretary Debby Wechsler (raspberryblackberry@gmail.com or 919-542-4037).

Read more at: https://covid19.ces.ncsu.edu/2020/06/2020-caneberry-survey-on-pricing-covid-19-impacts/
The North American Raspberry and Blackberry Association (NARBA), in collaboration with NC State University and the University of Arkansas, is conducting its biennial pricing survey. Growers of caneberries (raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids) in Canada and the U.S. will be asked about prices they received across all distribution methods. This year, additional questions have been added to capture the impact of COVID-19 on caneberry prices and caneberry operations. All growers who had any caneberry acreage in 2019 or 2020 are invited to participate: TAKE THE SURVEY The results of the survey will help caneberry growers, and anyone considering growing caneberries, better plan their pricing and production decisions in future years. In addition, this data is useful to researchers and policymakers who need accurate data about caneberry pricing trends in the North American caneberry industry. Caneberry growers can participate in the online survey by following this link. Survey results will be reported in the NARBA newsletter. For more information about the survey, contact Daniel Tregeagle (tregeagle@ncsu.edu or 919-515-6091). For more information about the North American caneberry industry, contact NARBA Executive Secretary Debby Wechsler (raspberryblackberry@gmail.com or 919-542-4037).

Read more at: https://covid19.ces.ncsu.edu/2020/06/2020-caneberry-survey-on-pricing-covid-19-impacts/

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Virtual Strawberry Field Day 2020


Strawberry circle of life.


Check out the 2020 NCSU Strawberry Field Day Virtual Tour on You Tube:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imoszzNnbbc#action=share

Since you could not be there, we will have a follow up webinar May 28, 2:30-3:30.  You can ask questions and learn more about strawberry research at NC State. These folks will be there: Hannah Burrack, Gina Fernandez, Mark Hoffmann and Rocco Schiavone.

Register in advance for this meeting:

https://ncsu.zoom.us/meeting/register/tJYkf-uvqTgpHNbTtB6BrnMT-1I97-y0JzhJ


After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.


Also, check out the University of Arkansas Field walk video. They mention NCSU cultivars Rocco and Liz.  Liz starts at 8:24 followed by Rocco.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLd4ZBCrPZk&t=12s

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Blackberry crop damage spring 2020


Over the last week there have been cool temperatures at night that have damaged the blackberry crop. The crop in some areas was 10 days to 2 weeks earlier than usual. This year we saw damage to the primocanes, something that we have not seen before. Thanks to the many growers I have talked to over the past couple of days for sending in the pictures below.  My impression is that the site and not cultivar has more to do with damage. Higher sites on the same farm incurred less damage. Also healthier plants sustained less damage.

Flower bud damage
The first image below are from a field visit a few years ago. The first image illustrates how a fruiting lateral looks fine on the outside, however once you slice open that same shoot, you can see that many of the centers (technically receptacles) of the flower buds are black. If the centers of the buds are black, they will not develop into fruit. If they are green, the fruit will develop normally.




On most farms, the crop this year was further along and the damage is easier to spot, no need to cut open the buds. The blackened centers are the receptacles. Culitvars from top to bottom are: Prime-Ark 45, Natchez, Osage and Freedom.
Prime-Ark 45
Natchez

Osage

Floricane crop of Freedom. Date is not correct.

Damage to primocanes
This year we saw damage to the newly emerged primocanes.  We think that the winds that came through over the last week made the plants more vulnerable to the cold temperatures. The damaged tissue will die. However, there are still buds on the lower canes and they will emerge and start growing. The response of the plant will be similar to tipping. 

Traveler cane damage.

Traveler tip damage
Freedom tip damage.
Freedom leaf damage.


What to do this year?
  • Wait a few days to determine the extent of the damage. Some areas in the region may sustain further damage this weekend and early next week.
  • Secondary buds near the base of the primary shoots may start to grow into a secondary shoot. Here is a link to secondary bud information on this blog. The secondary buds/shoots are often very fruitful, and will produce a later crop. https://teamrubus.blogspot.com/search?q=secondary+buds
  • When damage was severe, prune out the entire canes, removing all the dead flowers and the canes that they are attached to. 
  • In all cases, maintain a fungicide program, the dead primocane and floral bud tissue in the field will be susceptible to additional disease infection.  
What to think about for the future? 
Thanks to the many growers and to Karen Blaedow, NCCES Henderson County agent who shared their images with me.



Monday, April 13, 2020

Assessing cold damage of your blackberry crop

This past weekend, parts of NC dropped below the freezing point. You should be scouting your blackberry fields, especially low spots to determine if damage occurred. Look for black/brown centers in the flower buds.  To look for damage use your fingernail or a small knife to slice open flower buds. You can do it either lengthwise or horizontally.



We know that damage to the female portion of the flower bud occurs when the internal bud temperature is 27°F. Unlike strawberry, the floral buds are equally sensitive at all stages of bud development. (Data courtesy Fumi Takeda USDA)



 For lots more information on flower bud damage here is a link:
 https://teamrubus.blogspot.com/search?q=cold+damage

Friday, April 10, 2020